A1 "Special Theme: Suggestibility of Child Witnesses -- The Social Science Amicus Brief in State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels; The Expert as Educator: Enhancing the Rationality of Verdicts in Child Sexual Abuse Prosecutions," Ronald J. Allen and Joseph S. Miller, Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, June, 1995.

A2 "Scientific American Frontiers," TV Broadcast, 3/26/09, PBS World (episode filmed in 2000?), hosted by Alan Alda.

A3 "Lady Justice's Blindfold Has Been Shredded," Anthony G. Amsterdam, 38 Justice Denied 11 (Fall 2007).

A4 "Protecting the Innocent in New York: Moving Beyond Changing Only Their Names," James R. Acker and Catherine L. Bonventre, 73 Albany Law Review 1245 (2010).

A5 "Pedophilia Often in Headlines, But Not in Research Labs," Joan Arehart-Treichel, 41 Psychiatric News 41: 10.

A6 "The Perverse Law of Child Pornography," Amy Adler, 101 Columbia Law Review 209 (March 2001).

A7 "Attica Officers Plead Guilty in 2011 Inmate Beating," Associated Press, New York Law Journal, 3/3/15.

A8 "How Unusual Are the Contents of Paraphilias? Paraphilia-Associated Sexual Arousal Patterns in a Community-Based Sample of Men," Christoph Joseph Ahlers, Gerard Alfons Schaefer, Ingrid Annette Mundt, Stephanie Roll, Heike Englert, Stefan N. Willich, and Klaus Michael Beier, 8 Journal of Sexual Medicine 1362 (2011).

A9 "The Flipside of Wrongful Convictions: When the Guilty Go Free," James R. Asked, 76 Albany Law Review 1629 (2012-2013).

A10 "Leaders in Sex Offender Research and Policy," Alissa R. Ackerman and Karen J. Terry, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

A11 "The Great Writ Diminished," Lynn Adelman, 25 New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement 3 (Winter 2009).

A12 "City to Pay $6.25M to Man Imprisoned for 25 Years," Associated Press, New York Law Journal, 6/25/15.

A13 "To Catch a Predator," Amy Adler, 21 Columbia Journal of Gender & Law 130 (2012).

A14 "Inverting the First Amendment," Amy Adler, 149 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 921 (April 2001).


B1 "Special Theme: Suggestibility of Child Witnesses -- The Social Science Amicus Brief in State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels, Committee of Concerned Social Scientists, Maggie Brick and Stephen J. Ceci, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, June 1995.

B2 Photo Fakery: The History and Techniques of Photographic Deception and Manipulation, Dino A. Brugioni, 1999.

"The Mind of a Child Molester," Daniel Bergner, New York Times Magazine, 1/23/05.

B4 Bassine v. Hill, 450 F.Supp.2d 1182 (D.Or. 2006).

B5 "Judges and the Politics of Death: Deciding Between the Bill of Rights and the Next Election in Capital Cases," Stephen B. Bright and Patrick J. Keenan, 75 Boston University Law Review 759 (1995).

B6 Brewington v. State, 802 S.W.2d 691 (8th Cir. (TX) 1991).

B7 "Loyalty to One's Convictions: The Prosecutor and Tunnel Vision," Susan Bandes, 49 Howard Law Journal 475 (Winter 2006).

B8 "Commentary on Pedophilia Diagnostic Criteria in DSM-5," Fred S. Berlin, 39 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law 242 (2011).

B9 "Political Attacks on the Judiciary: Can Justice Be Done Amid Efforts to Intimidate and Remove Judges from Office for Unpopular Decisions?," Stephen B. Bright, 72 New York University Law Review 308 (May 1997).

B10 "How Can We Stop Pedophiles? Stop Treating Them Like Monsters," Jennifer Bleyer,, posted 9/24/12.

B11 "Stolen Happiness," Fernando Bermudez, 3 Columbia Journal of Race and Law 203 (2013).

B12 "The Nature of Children's True and False Narratives," Maggie Bruck, Stephen J. Ceci, and Helene Hembrooke, 22 Developmental Review 520 (2002).

B13 "Individual Differences in Children's Suggestibility: A Review and Synthesis," Maggie Bruck and Laura Melnyk, 18 Applied Cognitive Psychology 947 (2004).

B14 "Examining Sex Offender Community Notification Laws," Abril R. Bedarf, 83 California Law Review 885 (May 1995).

B15 "Regulating the Plea-Bargaining Market: From Caveat Emptor to Consumer Protection," Stephanos Bibas, 99 California Law Review 1117 (August 2011).

B16 "Circuit Revives Claims of Reprisal Against Prison Inmate," Ben Bedell, New York Law Journal, 8/31/15.

B17 "Framing Wrongful Convictions," Susan A. Bandes, 2008 Utah Law Review 5 (2008).

B18 "Prosecutorial Regulation versus Prosecutorial Accountability," Stephanos Bibas, 157 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 959 (2009).

B19 "Integrating Remorse and Apology Into Criminal Procedure," Stephanos Bibas and Richard A. Bierschbach, 114 Yale Law Journal 85 (October 2004).

B20 "Democracy and Decriminalization," Darryl K. Brown, 86 Texas Law Review 223 (December 2007).

B21 "Extraordinary Wrongful Convictions, Ordinary Errors -- Why Measurement Matters," Amy Bach, 73 Albany Law Review 1219 (2010).

B22 "The Ascent of the Administrative State and the Demise of Mercy," Rachel E. Barkow, 121 Harvard Law Review 1332 (March 2000).

B23 "How Can We Sleep When the Beds Are Burning? The Tumultuous Prison Culture of Attica Flourishes in American Prisons Twenty-Five Years Later," Justin Brooks, 47 Syracuse Law Review 159 (1996).

B24 "Hastert's Multiple Selves," Frank Bruni, The Week, 5/13/16, pg. 12. [Originally appeared in the New York Times.]

B25 "Transparency and Participation in Criminal Procedure," Stephanos Bibas, 81 New York University Law Review 911 (June 2006).

B26 "'Bad Lawyering': How Defense Attorneys Help Convict the Innocent," Sheila Martin Berry, 30 Northern Kentucky Law Review 487 (2003).

B27 "The Impact of Sex Offender Policies on Victims," Rachel Kate Bundy, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

B28 "The Third Model of Criminal Process: The Victim Participation Model," Douglas Evan Beloof, 1999 Utah Law Review 289 (1999).

B29 "Is Fairness Irrelevant?: The Evisceration of Federal Habeas Corpus Review and Limits on the Ability of State Courts to Protect Fundamental Rights," Stephen B. Bright, 54 Washington and Lee Law Review 1 (Winter 1997).

B30 "When Justice Fails: Indemnification for Unjust Conviction," Adele Bernhard, 6 University of Chicago Law School Roundtable 73 (1999).

B31 "The News Media's Influence on Criminal Justice Policy: How Market-Driven News Promotes Punitiveness," Sara Sun Beale, 48 William & Mary Law Review 397 (November, 2006).

B32: Unfair: The New Science of Criminal Injustice, Adam Benfurado, Broadway Books, 2015.


C1 The Essential Chomsky, Noam Chomsky, ed. by Anthony Arnaud, The New Press, 2008.

C2 Jeopardy in the Courtroom: A Scientific Analysis of Children's Testimony, Stephen J. Ceci and Maggie Bruck, American Psychological Association, 1995.

C3 Innocent: Inside Wrongful Conviction Cases, Scott Christianson, New York University Press, 2004.

"Criteria for Judging the Credibility of Children's Statements About Their Sexual Abuse," Kathleen Coulborn, 67 Child Welfare 5 (Sep./Oct. 1988).

C5 "Barred for Life": Sex Offenders Need Education and Treatment, Not a Lifetime of Civil Lockup," Scott Christianson, Times Union (Albany, NY), 1/22/06.

C6 "Perils of Bans on Ex-Sex Offenders," Editorial, Christian Science Monitor, 11/29/07.

C7 "New Jersey DOC Report: Megan's Law Costly and Ineffective," Matt Clarke, Prison Legal News, December 2009, pg. 28.

C8 "Capitol Press Room," 90.1 WSKG Radio, (Syracuse, NY), 2/21/11.

C9 "Police Misconduct as a Cause of Wrongful Convictions," Russell Covey, 90 Washington University Law Review 1133 (2013).

C10 "Guilty Until Proven Innocent: Providing Effective Relief to the Actually Innocent in New York," Steven M. Cytryn, 10 Cardozo Public Law, Policy and Ethics Journal 469 (Summer 2012).

C11 "Rational Enough to Punish, But Too Irrational to Release: The Integrity of Sex Offender Civil Commitment," Jason A. Cantone, 57 Drake Law Review 693 (2009).

C12 "The 'Blue Wall of Silence' as Evidence of Bias and Motive to Lie: A New Approach to Police Perjury," Gabriel C. Chin and Scott C. Wells, 59 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 233 (Winter 1998).

C13 "Fixed Justice: Reforming Plea Bargaining With Plea-Based Ceilings," Russell D. Covey, 82 Tulane Law Review 1237 (March 2008).

C14 "Crime, Legitimacy, and Testilying," I. Bennett Capers, 83 Indiana Law Journal 835 (Summer 2008).

C15 "The Suggestibility of Children: Scientific Research and Legal Implications," Stephen J. Ceci and Richard D. Friedman, 86 Cornell Law Review 33 (November 2003).

C16 CPL§320.10 (McKinney's Practice Insights [by Alan D. Marcus]: When Is It Advisable to Waive a Jury Trial?).

C17 CPL§320.10 (McKinney's Practice Insights [by Alan D. Marcus]: How a Non-Jury Trial Differs from Jury Trial).

C18 Scapegoat: A Brief History of Blaming Other People, Charlie Campbell, Duckworth Overlook Press, 2011.

C19 Perspectives on Children's Testimony, ed. by Stephen J. Ceci et al., Springer-Verlag.

C20 Colon v. Coughlin, 58 F.3d 865 (2nd Cir., 1995).

C21 "Sacrificing the Child to Convict the Defendant: Secondary Traumatization of Child Witnesses by Prosecutors, Their Inherent Conflict of Interest, and the Need for Child Witness Counsel," Tanya Asim Cooper, 9 Cardozo Public Law and Ethics Journal 239 (Spring 2011).

C22 "Capitol Press Room," 90.1 WSKG Radio (Syracuse, NY), date unknown, but 2010-2012).

C23 "Bronx Case Shows Fallibility of Criminal Justice System," John Caher, New York Law Journal, 1/27/14, pg. 1.

C24 "Judge Tosses Ex-Detective's Civil Rights Lawsuit," John Caher, New York Law Journal, 9/3/14.

C25 "Appellate Division on Appeal: The Justices' Rates of Agreement, Rejection, and Vindication by the Court of Appeals," Jason A. Cherna, Jessica Blain-Lewis, and Vincent Bonventre, 70 Albany Law Review 983 (2007).

C26 "A Call for Change: Improving Judicial Selection Methods," Jason A. Czarnezki, 89 Marquette Law Review 169 (Fall 2005).

"'They're Planting Stories in the Press': The Impact of Media Distortions on Sex Offender Law and Policy," Heather Ellis Cucolo and Michael L. Perlin, 3 University of Denver Criminal Law Review 185 (Spring 2013).

C28 Commonwealth v. Delbridge, 578 Pa. 641 (2003) (Supreme Court of Pennsylvania).

C29 "Prisons Do Not Reduce Recidivism: The High Cost of Ignoring Science," Frances T. Cullen, Cheryl Lero Johnson, and Daniel S. Nagin, The Prison Journal, Supplement to 91(3) 485-655 (2011).


D1 The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 1991.

D2 "State of New Jersey v. Michaels: The Due Process Implications Raised in Interviewing Child Witnesses," Clifton M. Dugas II, 55 Louisiana Law Review 1205 (1995).

D3 Arbitrary Justice: The Power of the American Prosecutor, Angela J. Davis, Oxford, 2007.

D4 Doe v. Pryor, 61 F.Supp.2d 1224, at 1235.

D5 Doe v. Miller, 289 F.Supp.2d 844 (S.D. Iowa 2004).

D6 Dyer v. Commonwealth, 816 S.W.2d 647 (Sup. Ct. of KY, 1991).

D7 "Learning from Error in American Criminal Justice," James M. Doyle, 100 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 109 (Winter 2010).

D8 "Sex Predators and Federal Habeas Corpus: Has the Great Writ Gone AWOL?," Stephen C. Dries, 39 Suffolk University Law Review 673 (2006).

D9 "The Legal Profession's Failure to Discipline Unethical Prosecutors," Angela J. Davis, 36 Hofstra Law Review 275 (Winter 2007).

D10 "Loathing the Sinner, Medicalizing the Sin: Why Sexually Violent Predator Statutes Are Unjust," John Douard, 30 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 36 (2008).

D11 "Sex Offender as Scapegoat: The Monstrous Other Withn," John Douard, 53 New York Law School Law Review 31 (2008/2009).

D12 "Proving the Lie: Litigating Police Credibility," David N. Dorfman, 26 American Journal of Criminal Law 455 (Summer 1999).

D13 "Bargained Justice: Plea-Bargaining's Innocence Problem and the Brady Safety-Valve," Lucian E. Dorvan, 2012 Utah Law Review 51 (2012).

D14 "Overcriminalization, Discretion, Waiver: A Survey of Possible Exit Strategies," Donald A. Dripps, 109 Penn State Law Review 1155 (Spring 2005).

D15 "The American Prosecutor: Independence, Power, and the Threat of Tyranny," Angela J. Davis, 86 Iowa Law Review 393 (January, 2001).

D16 "Sexual Violence and Restorative Justice," Jo-Ann Della Giustina, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

D17 "Overcriminalization 2.0: The Symbiotic Relationship Between Plea Bargaining and Overcriminalization," Lucian E. Dervan, 7 Journal of Law, Economics & Policy 645 (Summer 2011).

D18 "Sex, Lies, and Videotape: The Presentation of Sex Crime in Local Television News," Kenneth Dowler, 34 Journal of Criminal Justice 383 (2006).


E1 "Rough Justice: America Locks Up Too Many People, Some for Acts That Shouldn't Even Be Criminal," Leaders (editorial), and cover story, The Economist, 7/24/2010, pg. 13.

E2 "Too Many Laws, Too Many Prisoners: Never in the Civilized World Have So Many Been Locked Up for So Little," ibid., pp. 26-29.

E3 "The Greatest Fear: The JonBenet Ramsey Case," The Economist, 8/26/06, pg. 24.

E4 "Criminal Justice Reform: The Rattling of Keys," The Economist, 7/3/10, pg. 55.

E5 "Wanted: Better Judgment, Fewer Crowd-Pleasers and Lick-Spittles," The Economist, 11/22/08, pg. 70.

E6 Ellsworth v. Warden, 318 F.3d 285 (C.A.1 (NH) 2003).

E7 "The Fall of the Harlem Clubhouse: New York's Troubled Politicians," The Economist, 3/6/10, pg. 38.

E8 "'Is Innocence Irrelevant' to AEDPA'S Statute of Limitations? Avoiding a Miscarriage of Justice in Federal Habeas Corpus," Angela Ellis, 56 Villanova Law Review 129 (2011).

E9 "End This Prison Secrecy," editorial, Times Union (Albany, NY), 4/24/16.

E10 "The Containment Approach to Managing Sex Offenders," Kim English, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

E11 "Judge-Jury Agreement in Criminal Cases: A Partial Replication of Kalven and Zeisel's 'The American Jury'," Theodore Eisenberg, Paula J. Hannaford-Agor, Valerie P. Hans, Nicole L. Waters, G. Thomas Munsterman, Stewart J. Schwab, and Martin T. Wells, 2 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 1: 171 (March 2005).

E12 "'Frightening and High': The Supreme Court's Crucial Mistake About Sex Crime Statistics," Ira Mark Ellman and Tara Ellman, 30 Constitutional Commentary 495 (Fall 2015).


F1 "Innocent Until Proven Guilty: Shallow Words for the Falsely Accused in a Criminal Prosecution for Child Sexual Abuse," Terese L. Fitzpatrick, 12 University of Bridgeport Law Review 175 (1991).

F2 "The Alleged Molestation Victim, The Rules of Evidence, and the Constitution: Should Children Really Be Seen and Not Heard?," Thomas L. Feher, 14 American Journal of Criminal Law 227 (Spring 1987).

F3 Friedman v. Rehal, 618 F.3d 142 (2nd Cir. (NY) 2010).

F4 Culture of Fear: Risk Taking and the Morality of Low Expectation, Frank Furedi, Cassell, 1997.

F5 "The Multiple Dimensions of Tunnel Vision in Criminal Cases," Keith A. Findley and Michael S. Scott, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 291 (2006).

F6 "Innocents at Risk: Adversary Imbalance, Forensic Science, and the Search for Truth," Keith A. Findley, 38 Seton Hall Law Review 893 (2008).

F7 "Learning from Our Mistakes: A Criminal Justice Commission to Study Wrongful Convictions," Keith A. Findley, 38 California Western Law Review 333 (Spring 2002).

F8 "Reducing Sexual Abuse in America: Legislating Tougher Laws or Public Education and Prevention?," Robert E. Freeman-Longo, 23 New England Journal on Criminology and Civil Confinement 303 (Summer 1997).

F9 "Toward a New Paradigm of Criminal Justice: How the Innocence Movement Merges Crime Control and Due Process," Keith A. Findley, 41 Texas Tech Law Review 133 (Fall 2008).

F10 "Defining Innocence," Keith A. Findley, 74 Albany Law Review 1157 (2010-2011).

F11 "Crime Without Punishment?," Oriell Felfmanhall and Peter Sokol-Hessner, Scientific American Mind, May/June 2015, pp. 23-24.

F12 "Use of DSM Paraphilia Diagnoses in Sexually Violent Predator Commitment Cases," Michael W. First and Robert L. Hanlon, 36 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law 443 (2008).

F13 "Forensic and Diagnostic Concerns Arising from the Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Sexual Paraphilic Disorder," J. Paul Federoff, 39 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 238 (2011).

F14 "The Search for the Whole Truth About American and European Criminal Justice. Trials Without Truth: Why Our System of Criminal Trials Has Become an Expensive Failure and What We Need to Do to Rebuild It," William T. Pizzi and Richard S. Frase, 3 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 785 (2000).

F15 "Adversarial Inquisitions: Rethinking the Search for the Truth," Keith A. Findley, 56 New York Law School Review 911 (2011/2012).

F16 "Legal Socialization of Children and Adolescents," Jeffrey Fagan and Tom R. Tyler, 18 Social Justice Research 3: 217 (September 2005).

"Transcendent Homosexuals and Dangerous Sex Offenders: Sexual Harm and Freedom in the Judicial Imaginary," Joseph J. Fischel, 17 Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy 277 (May 2010).

F18 "Innocence Protection in the Appellate Process," Keith A. Findley, 93 Marquette Law Review 591 (Winter 2009).


G1 Mistrial, Mark Geregos and Pat Harris, Penguin Books, 2013.

G2 First Do No Harm: The Sexual Abuse Industry," Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Benton-Guy, 1993.

G3 A Practical Guide to the Evaluation of Sexual Abuse in the Prepubertal Child, Angel Giardino, Martin Finkel, Eileen Giardino, Toni Seidl, and Stephen Ludwig, Sage, 1992.

G4 "The Reasons for 'Wrong-Man' Cases," Kate Germond, Convicting the Innocent, Donald S. Connery (ed.), Brooklyn Books, 1996.

G5 Risk: The Science and Politics of Fear, Dan Gardner, Virgin Books, 2009.

G6 The Ethical Brain: The Science of Our Moral Dilemmas, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Harper Collins, 2005.

G7 Prosecutorial Misconduct, 2nd ed., Bennett L. Gershman, 2010.

G8 Gersten v. Senkowski, 299 F.Supp.2d 84 (E.D.N.Y. 2004).

G9 Hutchinson v. Hamlet, 243 Fed.Appx. 238 (9th Cir. (CA) 2007).

G10 Gezzi v. State, 780 P.2d 972 (Wyo. 1989).

G11 "One Hundred Years Later: Wrongful Convictions After a Century of Research," Jon B. Gould and Richard A. Leo, 100 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 825 (Summer 2010).

"Litigating Brady v. Maryland: Games Prosecutors Play," Bennett L. Gershman, 57 Case Western Reserve Law Review 531 (Spring 2007).

G13 "Actual-Innocence Policy, NON-DNA Innocence Claims," Glenn A. Garber and Angharad Vaughan, New York Law Journal, 4/4/08.

G14 "The Correction of Wrongful Convictions: A Comparative Perspective," Lissa Griffin, 16 American University International Law Review 1241 (2001).

G15 The Book of Woe: The DSM and the Unmaking of Psychiatry, Gary Greenberg, Blue Rider Press, 2013.

G16 "Confronting Confinement: A Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons," John T. Gibbons and Nicholas De B. Katzenbach, Co-Chairs, 22 Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 385 (2006).

G17 "Pretrial Procedures for Innocent People: Reforming Brady," Lissa Griffin, 56 New York Law School Law Review 969 (2011/2012).

"Prosecutorial Shaming: Naming Attorneys to Reduce Prosecutorial Misconduct," Adam M. Gershowitz, 42 University of California-Davis Law Review 1059 (April 2000).

"Reflections on Brady v. Maryland," Bennett L. Gershman, 47 South Texas Law Review 685 (2006).

"The Prudent Prosecutor," Leslie C. Griffin, 14 Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 259 (Winter 2001).

G21 "Witness Coaching By Prosecutors," Bennett L. Freshman, 23 Cardozo Law Review 829 (February, 2002).

G22 "Punishing Protestations of Innocence: Denying Responsibility and Its Consequences," Daniel Givelber, 37 American Criminal Law Review 1363 (Fall 2000).

G23 "Delmar Man Is Acquitted of Child Rape," Robert Gavin, Times Union (Albany NY), (precise date unknown --ca. April 2016).

G24 "Correcting Injustice: Studying How the United Kingdom and the United States Review Claims of Innocence," Lissa Griffin, 41 University of Toledo Law Review 107 (Fall 2009).

"When Self-Policing Does Not Work: A Proposal for Policing Prosecutors in Their Obligation to Provide Exculpatory Evidence to the Defense," Sara Gurwitch, 50 Santa Clara Law Review 303 (2010).

G26 "Exonerations in the United States, 1989-2012," Samuel L. Gross and Michael Shaffer, National Registry of Exonerations, 2012.

"Implications for Sexual Abuse Investigations," Gail Goodman and Alison Clarke-Stewart, The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 1991.

"The Prosecutor's Duty to Truth," Bennett L. Gershman, 14 Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 309 (Winter 2001).

"Sex Offender Myths in Print Media: Separating Fact from Fiction in U.S. Newspapers," Marcus A. Galeste, Henry F. Fradella, and Brenda Vogel, 3 Western Criminology Review 4 (2012).

G30 "Recasting Vagueness: The Case of Teen Sex Statutes," Cynthia Godsoe, 74 Washington and Lee Law Review 173 (Winter 2017).

G31 "With Impunity: The Lack of Accountability of a Criminal Prosecutor," Michelle Gheti and Paul Killebrew, 13 Loyola Journal of Public Interest Law 349 (Spring 2012).

Convicting the Innocent, Brandon L. Garrett, Harvard University Press, 2011.


H1 "Assessing Children's Credibility: Scientific and Legal Issues in 1994," Charles Robert Honts, 70 North Dakota Law Review 879 (1994).

H2 "Appraisal and Management of Risk in Sexual Aggressors: Implications for Criminal Justice Policy," Grant T. Harris, Marnie E. Rice, and Vernon L. Quinsey, 4 Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 73 (June 1998).

H3 "Predicting Relapse: A Meta-Analysis of Sexual Offender Recidivism Studies," R. Karl Hanson and Monique T. Bussiere, 66 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2 (348) (1998).

H4 "Prosecuting Offices' Immunity Tested: Supreme Court Set to Hear a Case That Considers Whether Prosecutors' Employers Can Be Held Accountable for Not Preventing Misconduct," Brad Heath and Kevin McCoy, USA Today, 10/6/10, pp. 13A-14A.

H5 Hyatt v. Weber, 468 F.Supp.2d 1104 (D.S.D. 2006).

H6 Hays v. Farewell, 482 F.Supp.2d 1180 (D. Nev. 2007).

H7 "The Accuracy of Recidivism Risk Assessments for Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of 118 Prediction Studies," R. Karl Hanson and Kelly E. Morton-Bourgon, 21 Psychological Assessment 1: 1-21 (2009).

H8 "The Characteristics of Persistent Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of Recidivism Studies," R. Karl Hanson and Kelly E. Morton-Bourgon, 73 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 6: 1154-1163 (2005).

H9 "Adjudicating Sex Crimes as Mental Disease," Melissa Hamilton, 33 Pace Law Review 536 (Spring 2013).

H10 "Will They Do It Again? Predicting Sex-Offense Recidivism," R. Karl Hanson, 9 Current Directions in Psychological Science 106 (June 2000).

H11 "Rethinking the Federal Role in State Criminal Justice," Joseph L. Hoffman and Nancy J. King, 84 New York University Law Review 791 (June 2009).

H12 "Improving Risk Assessment for Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Three Actuarial Scales," R. Karl Hanson and David Thornton, 24 Law and Human Behavior 1: 119 (February 2000).

H13 "The Child Pornography Crusade and Its Net-Widening Effect," Melissa Hamilton, 33 Cardozo Law Review 1679 (April 2012).

H14 "New York Law Enforcement Creates Best Practices to Prevent Wrongful Convictions," Kristene Hamann, 27, Criminal Justice 3: 36 (Fall 2012).

H15 "The Civil Commitment of Sexual Predators: A Policy Review," Andrew J. Harris, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

H16 "Testimony for Sale: The Law and Ethics of Snitches and Experts," George C. Harris, 28 Pepperdine Law Review 1 (2000).

H17 "Missing the Forest for the Trees: Federal Habeas Corpus and the Piecemeal Problem in Actual Innocence Cases," Stephanie Roberts Hartung, 10 Stanford Journal of Civil Rights & Civil Liberties 55 (January, 2014).

H18 "Habeas Corpus for the Innocent," Stephanie Roberts Hartung, 19 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Social Change 1 (2016).

H19 "Overcriminalization's New Harm Paradigm," Todd Haugh, 68 Vanderbilt Law Review 1191 (2014).


I1 "Lessons Not Learned: New York Leads in the Number of Wrongful Convictions But Lags in Reforms That Can Prevent Them" (Executive Summary),

I2 In re Fatima M., 793 N.Y.S.2d 329 (1st Dept. 2005).

I3 In re Habeas Corpus Cases, 298 F.Supp.2d 303 (E.D.N.Y.), Jack B. Weinstein, Senior Judge.


J1 "Differentiating Fact from Fantasy: The Reliability of Children's Memory," Marcia K. Johnson and Mary Ann Foley, 40 Journal of Social Issues 2 (1984).

J2 "Thomas Arthur's Case Exposes the U.S. Legal System's Sordid Plea Bargaining Obsession," Editorial, 38 Justice Denied 11 (Fall 2007).

J3 "How Can You Distinguish Between a Budding Pedophile from a Kid With Real Boundary Problems?," New York Times Magazine, 7/22/07, pp. 32-39, 56, 58-59.

J4 Jelinek v. Costello, 247 F.Supp.2d 212 (2003).

J5 "Albany Attorney Issues Scathing Indictment of Arrest and Trial by the Albany DA's Office,", accessed 8/20/05.

J6 "Ernie Tetrault, Justice Now Moderator Sat Down Recently With Mark Harris, Head of the Albany County Defender's Office," ibid.

J7 "Reconsidering Absolute Prosecutorial Immunity," Margaret Z. Johns, 2005 Brigham Young University Law Review 53 (2005).

J8 "A Reason to Doubt: The Suppression of Evidence and the Inference of Innocence," Cynthia E. Jones, 100 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 415 (Spring 2010).

J9 "The Relationship Between Prosecutorial Misconduct and Wrongful Convictions: Shaping Remedies for a Broken System," Peter A. Joy, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 399 (2006).

J10 "'Megan's Laws' Reinforce Old Patterns of Anti-Gay Harassment," Robert L. Jacobson, 87 Georgetown Law Journal 2431 (July 1999).

J11 "A Crooked Picture: Re-Framing the Problem of Child Sexual Abuse," Eric S. Janus and Emily A. Polachek, 26 William Mitchell Law Review 142 (2009).

J12 "Forensic Use of Actuarial Risk Assessment With Sex Offenders: Accuracy, Admissibility and Accountability," Eric S. Janus and Robert A. Prentky, 20 American Criminal Law Review 1443 (Fall 2003).

J13 "Prison Power Corrupts Absolutely: Exploring the Phenomenon of Prison Guard Brutality and the Need to Develop a System of Accountability," Andrea Jacobs, 41 California Western Law Review 277 (Fall 2004).


K1 King and Yuille, [first names, chapter title, pg. nos. unknown], Children's Eyewitness Memory, Stephen J. Ceci, Michael P. Toglia, and David F. Ross (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1987.

K2 Erotic Innocence: The Culture of Child Molesting, James R. Kincaid, Duke University Press, 1998.

K3 "Responding to Sexual Offenses: Research, Reason and Public Safety: A Call to Reason," Kostas A. Katsavdakis, Marsha Weissman, and Alan Rosenthal, Center for Community Alternatives, [date unknown].

K4 Kennedy v. Louisiana, 128 S.Ct. 2641.

K5 "The Utility of the Diagnosis of Pedophilia: A Comparison of Various Classification Procedures," Drew A. Kingston et al., 36 Archives of Sexual Behavior 36: 423-436 (2007).

K6 "Actual Innocence After Friedman v. Rehal: The Second Circuit Pursues a New Mechanism for Seeking Justice in Actual Innocence Cases," Jonathan M. Kirshbaum, 31 Pace Law Review 627 (Spring 2011).

K7 "Lock Them Up -- and Throw Away the Key: The Preventive Detention of Sex Offenders in the United States and Germany," Meghan Kelly, 39 Georgetown Journal of International Law 551 (Spring 2008).

K8 "Monstrous Offenders and the Search for Solidarity Through Modern Punishment," Joseph E. Kennedy, 51 Hastings Law Journal 829 (July 2000).

K9 Kotler v. Donelli, 528 Fed.Appx. 10 (2nd Cir. (NY) 2013).

K10 "Due Process Denied: Judicial Coercioin in the Plea Bargaining Process," Richard Klein, 32 Hofstra Law Review 1349 (Summer 2004).

K11 "Final Technical Report: Habeas Litigation in U.S. District Courts: An Empirical Study of Habeas Corpus Cases Filed by State Prisoners Under the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996," Nancy J. King, Fred L. Chessman II, and Brian J. Ostrom, August 21, 2007 (NIJ/OJP DOJ grant).

K12 "The Brady Colloquy," Jason Kreag, 67 Stanford Law Review Online 47 (September 2, 2014).

K13 "Wrongfully Imprisoned Man Cleared of Murder Conviction," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 1/22/15.

K14 "Wrongfully Convicted Man Released From Prison After 25 Years," Andrew Keshner and Andrew Denny, New York Law Journal, 3/11/16, pg. 1.

K15 "Firm Is Awarded $5 Million in Malicious Prosecution Case," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 12/2/15.

K16 "Judge Rejects Unfair Trial Claim of Wrongfully Convicted Man," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 1/9/15.

K17 "After 23-Year Imprisonment, Brooklyn Judge Reverses Conviction in Rabbi Murder Case," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 3/22/13.

K18 "Haynes' Conviction Integrity Unit Drops Indictment in Murder Case," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 3/21/13.

K19 "Vacated Brooklyn Convictions," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 6/7/14.

K20 "Judge Approves Brooklyn DA's Bid to Vacate Murder Findings," Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, 5/18/14.

K21 "Absent Accountability: How Prosecutorial Immunity Hinders the Fair Administration of Justice," Scott J. Krischke, 19 Journal of Law and Policy 395 (2010).

K22 "Two Cultures of Punishment," Joshua Kleinfeld, 68 Stanford Law Review 933 (May 2016).


L1 "Distortions in the Memory of Children," Elizabeth F. Loftus and Graham M. Davies, 40 Journal of Social Issues 2 (1984).

L2 "Lexington: A Nation of Jailbirds," The Economist, 4/4/09, pg. 40.

L3 Lee v. Lampert, 607 F.Supp.2d 1204 (D.Or. 2009).

L4 Love v. Freeman, 188 F.2d 502 (4th Cir. (NC) 1999).

L5 "Pedophiles and Cyber-Predators as Contaminating Forces: The Language of Disgust, Pollution, and Boundary Invasions in Federal Debates on Sex Offender Legislation," Mona Lynch, 27 Law and Social Inquiry 529 (Summer 2002).

L6 "The Psychology of Condemnation: Underlying Emotions and Their Symbolic Expression in Condemning and Shaming," Sharon Lamb, 68 Brooklyn Law Review 929 (Summer 2003).

L7 "Beyond No-Man's Land: Psychiatry's Imprecision Revealed By Its Critique of SVP Statutes as Applied to Pedophilia," Jennifer Lason, 83 Southern California Law Review 1319 (Summer 2010).

L8 "Deviant Justice: The American Gulag, 'Lawyer X,' In Depth Media, 2013 [?] (publisher's synopsis).

L9 "Prison Unit Abuses Alleged," Brendan J. Lyons, Times Union (Albany, NY), 1/8/16.

L10 "Adapting to Miranda: Modern Interrogators' Strategies for Dealing With the Obstacles Posed by Miranda," Richard A. Leo and Welsh S. White, 84 Minnesota Law Review 397 (December 1999).

L11 "Prosecutor Becomes Prosecuted," Adam Liptak, New York Times, 6/24/07, WK-4.

L12 "Commentary: Research Findings," Elizabeth T. Loftus and Steven J. Ceci, The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 1991.

L13 "Accuracy of Investigators' Verbatim Notes of Their Forensic Interviews With Alleged Child Abuse Victims," Michael E. Lamb, Gael Orbach, Kathleen J. Sternberg, Ira Hershkowitz and Dvora Horowitz, 24 Law and Human Behavior 6: 699 (December 2000).

L14 "Ex-Correction Officers Are Charged With Prison Beating," Brendan J. Lyons, Times-Union (Albany, NY), 9/22/16, pgs. A1, A10.

L15 "Ex-Prisons Boss Admits Coercion," Brendan J. Lyons, Times-Union (Albany, NY), 1/6/16, pgs. A3, A5.

L16 ""Children's Memory for Conversations About Sexual Abuse: Legal and Psychological Implications," Thomas J. Lyon and Stacia N. Stolzenberg, 19 Roger Williams University Law Review 411 (Spring 2014).

L17 "Consent Forms and Consent Formalism," Nancy Leong and Kira Suyeishi, 2013 Wisconsin Law Review 751 (2013).

L18 "Views of Sexual Abuse Professionals About Sex Offender Notification Policies," Jill S. Levenson, Timothy Fortney, and Juanita N. Baker, 54 International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2: 150 (April 2010).

L19 "At the State Level, So-Called Crimes Are Here, There, Everywhere," Marc A. Levin, 28 Criminal Justice 1 (Spring 2013).

L20 "Controlling Sexually Violent Predators: Continued Incarceration at What Cost," Tamara Rice Lave, 14 New Criminal Law Review 213 (Spring 2011).

L21 "The Problem With Cynical Prosecutor's Syndrome: Rethinking a Prosecutor's Role in Post-Conviction Cases," Laurie L. Levenson, 20 Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law 335 (Fall, 2015).

L22 Sex Panic and the Punitive State, Roger N. Lancaster, University of California Press, 2011.

L23 "Promoting Accuracy in the Use of Confession Evidence: An Argument for Pretrial Reliability Assessments to Prevent Wrongful Convictions," Richard A. Leo, Peter J. Neufeld, Steven A. Drizin, and Andrew E. Taslitz, 85 Temple Law Review 759 (Summer 2013).


M1 Childhood, Sexuality, and Danger, Agustin Malon Marco, 2004.

M2 Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations, Bruce E. Mapes, Clinical Psychology Pub. Co. (CPPC), 1995.

M3 "Special Theme: Suggestibility of Child Witnesses -- The Social Science Amicus Brief in State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels; For the Record: Videotaping Investigative Interviews," Lucy S. McGough, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, June, 1995.

M4 "Remaking Confrontation Clause and Hearsay Doctrine Under the Challenge of Child Sexual Abuse Prosecutions," Robert P. Mosteller, 1993 University of Illinois Law Review 691 (1993).

M5 Evidence in Child Abuse and Neglect Cases," John E.B. Myers, Wiley, 1997.

M6 Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition in Childhood, Adolescence, and Maturity, John Money, 1986.

M7 Mother Jones, September/October 2008, pg. 43.

M8 "How to Get Out of Jail (If You're Innocent)," Ilaan M. Maazel, New York Law Journal, 11/4/14, pg. 3.

"Emotionally Charged: The Prosecutorial Charging Decision and the Innocence Revolution," Daniel S. Medwed, 31 Cardozo Law Review 2187 (June 2010).

M10 "Let the Burden Fit the Crime: Extending Proportionality Review to Sex Offenders," Erin Miller, 123 Yale Law Journal 1607 (March 2014).

M11 "The Evil That Men Do: Perverting Justice to Punish Perverts," Grant H. Morvis, 2000 University of Illinois Law Review 1199 (2000).

M12 "The Zeal Deal: Prosecutorial Resistance to Post-Conviction Claims of Innocence," Daniel Medwed, 84 Boston University Law Review 125 (February 2004).

M13 "Recidivism in Pedophiles: An Investigation Using Different Diagnostic Methods," Heather M. Moulden et al., 20 Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 5: 680 (October 2009).

M14 "Unclear and Unconvincing Evidence in SORA Hearings," Lorca Morello, New York Law Journal, 4/18/11.

M15 "Challenging the Habeas Process Rather Than the Result," Justin F. Marceau, 69 Washington & Lee Law Review 85 (Winter 2012).

M16 McKinney's [?], 390.30 (pg. 342).

M17 "Good Enough for Government Work: The Constitutional Duty to Preserve Forensic Interviews of Child Victims," Lucy S. McGough, 65 Law and Contemporary Problems 179 (Winter 2002).

M18 "Freeing Up Intelligence," Sendhill Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir, Scientific American Mind, January/February 2014, pp. 58-63.

"Anatomy of a Wrongful Conviction: Theoretical Implications and Practical Solutions," Daniel S. Medwed, 51 Villanova Law Review 337 (2006).

M20 "Brady's Bunch of Flaws," Daniel S. Medwed, 67 Washington & Lee Law Review 1533 (Fall 2010).

M21 "Gateway to Justice: Constitutional Claims to Actual Innocence," Sarah A. Maurer, 64 University of Miami Law Review 1279 (July 2010).

M22 Missouri v. Seibert, 124 S.Ct. 2601 (2004).

M23 "The Role of the Social Sciences in Preventing Wrongful Convictions," Jaqueline McMurtrie, 42 American Criminal Law Review 1271 (Fall 2005).

M24 "The Presence of Malice," Richard Moran, The New York Times, 8/2/07, A17.

M25 "A Message from the Executive Director Karen Murtagh-Monks," 20 Pro Se 6 (2011) (published by Prisoners' Legal Services of New York), pg. 2.

M26 "We Know What to Do -- Why Don't We Do It?" A Message from the Executive Director -- Karen L. Murtagh, 21 Pro Se 1 (2011), pg. 2.

M27 "Commentary: Sexual Abuse and Suggestibility," Lucy S. McGough, The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 1991.

M28 "Commentary: Assessing the Credibility of Witnesses' Statements," Lucy S. McGough, The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 2001.

M29 "Don't Throw the Baby Out With the Bathwater: Incentive Programs Work," Karen L. Murtagh, 25 Pro Se 4 (2015).

M30 "Attica Revisited," Karen L. Murtagh, 26 Pro Se 5 (2016).

M31 "Good Cop, Bad Cop: Using Cognitive Dissonance to Reduce Police Lying," Andrew J. McClurg, 32 University of California-Davis Law Review 389 (Winter 1999).

M32 "Regulating Sexual Harm: Strangers, Intimates, and Social Institutional Reform," Allegra M. McLeod, 102 California Law Review 1553 (December, 2014).

M33 Prosecution Complex: America's Race to Convict and Its Impact on the Innocent, Daniel S. Medwed, New York University Press, 2012.

M34 "Mental Health Professionals' Perspective on Sex Offender Registry Web Sites," Alvin Malesky and Jeanmarie Klein, 13 Sexual Abuse 53 (2001).


N1 From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation & Constitutional Law, Martha Nussbaum, Oxford, 2010.

N2 "The Problem of Sex Offenders," Editorial, The New York Times, 9/12/09.

N3 "Sen. Webb's Call for Prison Reform," Editorial, The New York Times, 1/1/09.

Final Report of the New York State Task Force on Wrongful Convictions, April 4, 2009.

N5 "I am Innocent!" A Comprehensive History of the World's Wrongly Convicted Persons, Jay Robert Nash, Da Capo Press, 2008.

N6 "'Than That One Innocent Suffer': Evaluating State Safeguards Against Wrongful Convictions," Robert J. Norris et al., 74 Albany Law Review 1301 (2010-11).

N7 National Summit on Wrongful Convictions, International Association of Chiefs of Police / U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Wrongful Convictions Summit (August 2013).

N8 "A Proposal for 'Fully Determinate' Sentencing," [BY WHOM? IN WHAT?] December 2010.

N9 "Exonerations in 2014," National Registry of Exonerations (January 27, 2015).

"The Future of Sentencing in New York State: Recommendations for Reform," New York State Commission on Sentencing Reform, January 30, 2009.

N11 "Top 10 New York Case Summaries in 2014," (no author listed), New York Law Journal, 4/29/15.

N12 "This American Life," National Public Radio (NPR), 9/13/15.

"All Things Considered," National Public Radio (NPR), 3/18/16.

N14 "Exonerations in 2016," National Registry of Exonerations (March 7, 2017).


O1 "Facing the Unfaceable: Dealing With Prosecutorial Denial in Postconviction Cases of Actual Innocence," Aviva Orenstein, 48 San Diego Law Review 401 (February-March 2001).

O2 "Solving the Good-Time Puzzle: Why Following the Rules Should Get You Out of Prison Early," Michael M. O'Hear, 2012 Wisconsin Law Review 195 (2012).

O3 "The Gateway for Successive Habeas Petitions: An Argument for Schlup v. Delo's Probability Standard for Actual Innocence Claims," Mark M. Oh, 19 Cardozo Law Review 2341 (July 1998).

O4 "Commentary: Putting Interviewing in Context," Peter A. Ornstein, The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 1991.

O5 "Appellate Courts, Historical Facts, and the Civil-Criminal Distinction," Chad M. Oldfather, 57 Vanderbilt Law Review 437 (March, 2004).


P1 [chapter headings, pg. nos. unknown], Douglas F. Peters, Children's Eyewitness Memory, Stephen J. Ceci, Michael P. Toglia, and David F. Ross (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1987.

P2 "The Impact of Naturally Occurring Stress on Children's Memory," Douglas F. Peters, Perspectives on Children's Testimony, S.J. Ceci, D.F. Ross, and M.P. Toglia (eds.), Springer-Verlag [1987 or later].

P3 "Juror: Sex Offfender Law Unfair," Richard Prior,, 10/9/10.

P4 People v. Lackey, 853 N.Y.S.2d 668 (3rd Dept., 2008).

P5 People v. Childress, 906 N.Y.S.2d 781 (N.Y. City Crim. Ct., 2009).

P6 People v. Carrington, 959 N.Y.S.2d 897 (N.Y. Co. Ct., 2008).

P7 People v. Maldonado, 606 N.Y.S.2d 258 (2nd Dept., 1993).

P8 People v. Murphy, 526 N.Y.S.2d 905 (Kings Cty. Ct., 1988).

P9 People v. Bentley, 475 F.Supp.2d 852 (N.D. IA, 2007).

P10 People v. Hudy, 521 N.Y.S.2d 811 (3rd Dept., 1987).

P11 "Punishment, Prisons, and the Bible: Does 'Old Testament Justice' Justify Our Retributive Culture?," Martin H. Pritikin, 28 Cardozo Law Review 715 (November 2006).


P13 People v. Mullgrav, 525 N.Y.S.2d 302 (2nd Dept., 1988).

P14 Public Defense Backup Report (New York State Defenders Association) 23:2 (March-May 2008), pp. 1-2.

P15 "Sexually Violent Predators in the Courtroom," Robert A. Prentky, Eric Janus, Howard Barbaree, Barbara K. Schwartz, Martin P. Kafka, 12 Psychology, Public Policy, and Law (November 2006).

P16 "Recidivism Rates Among Child Molesters and Rapists: A Methodological Analysis," Robert A Prentky, Austin F. Lee, Raymond A. Knight, and David Cerce, 21 Law and Human Behavior 6: 635 (1997).

P17 People v. Angora, 989 N.Y.S.2d 746 (4th Dept., 2014).

P18 "'There's No Success Like Failure / And Failure's No Success at All': Exposing the Pretextuality of Kansas v. Hendricks," Michael L. Perlin, 92 Northwestern Law Review 1247 (Summer 1998).

P19 People v. Bagarozy, 522 N.Y.S.2d 848 (1st Dept., 1987).

P20 "Little Hope Was Arson," PBS (documentary), 4/11/15.

P21 "How Sherlock Holmes Changed the World," PBS (documentary), 12/17/13.

P22 "New York: Contraband Convictions Vacated After Guard Admits Planting Weapon," Prison Legal News, April 2017, pg. 39.

P23 People v. Ortega, 47 N.Y.S.3d 908 (1st Dept., 2017).

P24 "New Laws Governing Identification Evidence and Video Recording of Interrogations," Public Defense Backup Center Report, April-June 2017.

P25 "Second Circuit Rules That Correctional Association Report Is Hearsay," 27 Pro Se 4: 1 (August 2017) (Prisoners' Legal Services of New York).

P26 "A Structural Vision of Habeas Corpus," Eve Brensike Primus, 98 California Law Review 1 (February 2010).

P27 "Brutality Behind Bars -- A Special Report: Prison's Violent Culture Enveloping Its Guards," Matthew Purdy, The New York Times, December 19, 1995, A1.


R1 "Statement Validity Assessment: Interview Procedures and Content Analysis of Children's Statements of Sexual Abuse," David C. Raskin and Phillip W. Esplin, 13 Behavioral Assessment 265 (1991).

R2 "When Will It Ever End?," Peter Reilly, Convicring the Innocent, Donald S. Connery (ed.), Brooklyn Books, 1996.

R3 "Theologian's Corner: Despised But Not Ashamed," (author unknown), Reform Sex Offender Laws (RSOL), e-magazine, February, 2010, pp. 7-8.

R4 "The Other Innocent Ones," (author unknown), RSOL e-mag. [see above], March, 2010, pp. 7-8.

R5 "Innocents Convicted: An Empirically Justified Factual Wrongful Conviction Rate," D. Michael Risinger, 97 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 761 (Spring 2007).

R6 "Too Little, Too Late: Ineffective Assistance of Counsel, The Duty to Investigate, and Pretrial Discovery in Criminal Cases," Jenny Roberts, 31 Fordham Urban Law Journal 1097 (May 2004).

R7 "Innocence Is Different: Taking Innocence Into Account in Reforming Criminal Procedure," D. Michael Risinger & Leslie C. Risinger, 56 New York Law School Law Review 869 (2011/2012).

R8 "Unsafe Verdicts: The Need for Reformed Standards for the Trial and Review of Factual Innocence Claims," D. Michael Risinger, 41 Houston Law Review 1281 (Winter 2004).

R9 "Testimony and Interrogation of Minors: Assumptions About Maturity and Morality," Jessica Owen-Kostelnik, N. Dickon-Reppucci, and Jessican R. Meyer, 61 American Psychologist 4: 286 (May-June 2006).

R10 "Daubert, Schmaubert: Criminal Defendants and the Short End of the Science Stick," Susan S. Rozelle, 43 Tulsa Law Review 597 (Winter 2007).

R11 "Wrongful Conviction: Perceptions of Crimjnal Justice Professionals Regarding the Frequency of Wrongful Conviction and the Extent of System Errors," Robert J. Ramsey and James Frank, 53 Crime & Delinquency 3 (July 2007).

R12 "The Accelerating Degradation of American Criminal Codes," Paul H. Robinson and Michael T. Cahill, 25 Hastings Law Journal 633 (March 2005).

"The Five Worst (and Five Best) American Criminal Codes," Paul H. Robinson, Michael T. Cahill, and Usman Mohammad, 95 Northwestern University Law Review 1 (Fall 2000).

R14 "'One of the Dirty Secrets of American Corrections': Retaliation, Surplus Power, and Whistleblowing Inmates," James E. Robinson, 42 University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 611 (Spring 2009).

R15 "Reflections on Innocence," Richard A. Rosen, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 237 (2006).

R16 "After the Hurricane: The Legacy of the Rubin Carter Case," Judith L. Ritter, 12 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 1 (Winter 2015).

"It's Still a Crime in 21 States," Deborah Rhode, The Week, 5/13/16, pg. 12. (Originally appeared in the Los Angeles Times.)

R18 "The Supreme Court Assumes Errant Prosecutors Will Be Disciplined By Their Offices or the Bar: Three Case Studies That Prove That Assumption Wrong," Joel B. Rudin, 80 Fordham Law Review 537 (2011).

R19 "Problems in Evaluating Interviews of Children in Sexual Abuse Cases," David C. Raskin and John C. Yuille, Perspectives on Children's Testimony, Stephen J. Ceci et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlag.

R20 "Assessment of Children's Statements of Sexual Abuse," David C. Raskin and Phillip W. Esplin, The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections, John Doris (ed.), American Psychological Association (APA), 1991.

R21 "'Miranda': More Than (or Merely?) Words?," Debra L. Raskin and Zachary Margulis-Ohnuma, New York Law Journal, 4/29/16.

R22 "Ham Sandwich Nation: Due Process When Everything Is a Crime," Glenn Harlan-Reynolds, 113 Columbia Law Review Sidebar 102 (July 8, 2013).

R23 "The Demise of Habeas Corpus and the Rise of Qualified Immunity: The Court's Ever-Increasing Limitations on the Development and Enhancement of Constitutional Rights and Some Particularly Unfortunate Consequences," Stephen R. Reinhardt, 113 Michigan Law Review 1219 (May, 2015).

R24 "Epilogue: Overcriminalization: An Agenda for Change," Paul Rosenzweig, 54 American University Law Review 809 (February 2005).


S1 Manifest Injustice, Barry Siegel, Holt, 2012.

S2 The Haunted Fifties: 1953-1963, I.F. Stone, Little, Brown, 1989 (1963).

S3 "The Complicity of Judges in the Generation of Wrongful Convictions," Hans Sherrer, 30 Northern Kentucky Law Review 539 (2003).

S4 "The Epidemic of Prosecutorial Misconduct," (excerpts from a book of the same name), Internet accessed:, 2/1/07.

S5 "Sex Offenders: Flaws in the System and Effective Solutions," accessed 9/12/05,

S6 "Sexual Abuse of Children: Issues for Social Service and Health Professionals," Leroy G. Schultz and Preston Jones, Jr., 62 Child Welfare 99 (1983).

S7 "Assessing the Costs of False Allegations of Child Abuse: A Prescriptive," Susan Sarnoff, IPT [Institute for Psychological Therapies], Vol. 9:3 (1997).

S8 "State Urged to Do More to Halt False Convictions: Failure to Tape Many Interrogations Cited," Fernanda Santos, The New York Times, 10/18/03, pg. B3.

S9 Three Felonies a Day: How the Feds Target the Innocent, Harvey Silverglate, Encounter, 2009.

S10 Actual Innocence: Five Days to Execution, and Other Dispatches From the Wrongly Convicted, Barry Scheck, Peter Neufeld, and Jim Dwyer, Doubleday, 2000.

S11 Stephan v. State, 711 P.2d 1156 (Alaska 1985).

S12 Sanders v. Ryder, 183 Fed.Appx. 666 (9th Cir. (WA) 2006).

S13 Spencer v. Donnelly, 193 F.Supp.2d 718 (W.D.N.Y.) 2002.

S14 State v. Stutts, 414 S.E.2d 61 (N.C.) App. 1992.

S15 "Confronting Mass Imprisonment and Restoring Fairness to Collateral Review of Criminal Cases," Bryan A. Stevenson, 41 Harvard Civil Rights - Civil Liberties Law Review 339 (Summer 2006).

S16 "Unlimited Innocence: Recognizing an 'Actual Innocence' Exception to AEDPA's Statute of Limitations," Jack Sussman, 27 New York University Review of Law and Social Change 343 (2001-2002).

S17 "Toward a Model Act for the Prevention and Remedy of Erroneous Convictions," Michael J. Saks et al., 35 New England Law Review 669 (Spring 2001).

S18 "Are Sex Offenders Different? An Examination of Rearrest Patterns," Lisa L. Sample and Timothy M. Bray, 17 Criminal Justice Policy Review 1: 83-102 (March 2006).

S19 "Habeas Corpus, Equitable Tolling, and AEDPA's Statute of Limitations: Why the Schlup v. Delo Gateway Standard for Claims of Actual Innocence Fails to Alleviate the Plight of Wrongfully Convicted Americans," Brandon Segal, 31 University of Hawaii Law Review 225 (Winter 2008).

S20 "Lawmakers Propose Check on Misuse of Prosecutorial Discretion," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 6/10/14, pg. 1.

S21 "Testilying: Police Perjury and What to Do About It," Christopher Slobogin, 67 University of Colorado Law Review 1037 (Fall 1996).

S22 "The Pathological Politics of Criminal Law," William J. Stuntz, 100 Michigan Law Review 505 (December 2001).

S23 "Can You Be a Good Person and a Good Prosecutor?," Abbe Smith, 14 Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 355 (2001).

S24 "Toward Taping," Christopher Slobogin, 1 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 309 (2003).

S25 "Wrongful Convictions: Preventing Miscarriages of Justice: Some Case Studies," Donald J. Sorochan, 41 Texas Tech Law Review 93 (Fall 2008).

S26 "Systemic Lying," Julian Simon-Kerr, 56 William and Mary Law Review 2175 (May, 2015).

S27 "The Metrics of Injustice," Ken Strutin, New York Law Journal, 5/20/14, pg. 5.

S28 "Fallen Superheroes and Constitutional Mirages: The Tale of Brady v. Maryland," Scott E. Sundby, 33 McGeorge Law Review 643 (Summer 2002).

S29 Schwartzmilller v. Gardner (D. Ohio 1983).

S30 "The Limited Diagnosticity of Criminal Trials," 64 Vanderbilt Law Review 143 (January, 2011).

S31 "The Odyssey of Truth: Actual Innocence and Reinvestigation," Ken Strutin, New York Law Journal, 11/25/14.

S32 "The Cost of Strict Discovery: A Comparison of Manhattan and Brooklyn Criminal Cases," Dan Svirsky, 38 New York University Review of Law and Social Change 532 (2014).

S33 Steele v. State of New York, #2015-029-027, Claim No. 122020, Motion No. M-86197. (New York State Court of Claims; Judge Stephen J. Mignano, White Plains, 6/18/15).

S34 State v. Michaels, 136 N.J. 299 (1994).

S35 "Criminal Law at the Crossroads: Turn to Accuracy," Dan Simon, 87 Southern California Law Review 421 (March 2014).

S36 "Does a Watched Pot Boil? A Time-Series Analysis of New York State's Sex Offender Registration and Notification Law," Jeffrey C. Sandler, Naomi J. Freeman, and Kelly M. Socia, 14 Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 284 (November, 2008).

S37 "Sex Offender Registration and Community Notification," Lisa L. Sample and Mary K. Evans, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

S38 "City, State Settle Case of Wrongful Imprisonment," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 1/29/16.

S39 "In Praise of the Guilty Project: A Criminal Defense Lawyer's Growing Anxiety About Innocence Projects," Abbe Smith, 13 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Social Change 315 (2009-2010).

S40 "An Empirical Study of Dissent at the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, Third Department," Christopher J. Stevens, 74 Albany Law Review 913 (2010-2011).

S41 "A Reasoning-Process Review Model for Federal Habeas Corpus," Steven Semeraro, 94 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 897 (Summer 2004).

S42 "Two Men Cleared for 1997 Slaying of Student," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 7/9/16.

S43 State v. A.R., 213 N.J. 542 (2013).

S44 "Chief Clerk and Deputy Exit Court of Claims," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 5/24/14.

"Third Department Shifts Staffer to Cope With Loss of Attorneys," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 7/12/13.

S46 "Chief, Two Lawyers Resign From 3rd Dept. Disciplinary Panel," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 7/10/13.

S47 "Man Acquitted of Killing Wife After Fourth Trial," Joel Stashenko, New York Law Journal, 5/25/16.

S48 "Evaluating Children's Competency to Testify: Developing A Rational Method to Assess a Young Child's Capacity to Offer Reliable Testimony in Cases Alleging Child Sex Abuse," Laurie Shanks, 58 Cleveland State Law Review 575 (2010).

S49 State v. Felix R., 147 Conn.App. 206 (Connecticut, 2013).

S50 "Barry Scheck Lectures on Wrongful Convictions," Barry C. Scheck, 54 Drake Law Review (Spring 2006).

S51 "Live Hearings and Paper Trials," Mark Spottswood, 38 Florida State University Law Review 827 (Summer 2011).

S52 "How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions," Brad Smith, Marvin Zalman, and Angie Kiger, 57 Crime & Delinquency 5: 663.

S53 "The Haunting Real-Life Tale Behind the New Movie 'Crown Heights,'" Sara Stewart, New York Post, 8/23/17.

S54 "Defense-Oriented Judges," Abbe Smith, 32 Hofstra Law Review 1483 (Summer 2004).

S55 "Humility in Criminal Justice: What It Might Invite Us to Reconsider," Dean A. Strang, 100 Marquette Law Review 1433 (Summer 2017).

S56 "New Prison and Jail Population Figures Released by U.S. Department of Justice," The Sentencing Project, April 25, 2019.

S57 Staton v. Commonwealth, 2002 WL 1792094 (VA).

S58 State v. Daggett, 167 W.Va. 411, 280 S.E.2d 545 (1981).


T1 "Justice Through Forgiveness: Face-to-Face Meetings Between Victim and Perpetrator Bring Relief to Both Parties," Cara Tabachnik, Scientific American Mind, Sep./Oct. 2014, pg. 16.

T2 Taus v. Senkowski, 293 F.supp.2d 238 (E.D.N.Y. 2003)

T3 Turtle v. State, 600 So.2d 1214 (Fla. App. 1 Dist. 1992).

T4 "Tarred and Feathered," This American Life," (radio program), NPR, 4/11/14.

T5 "Miranda's Illusion: Telling Stories in the Police Interrogation Room," George C. Thomas III, 81 Texas Law Review 1091 (2003).

T6 Tankleff v. Senkowski, 993 F.Supp. 159 (E.D.N.Y. 1997).

T7 "Rewarding Rogue Prosecutors," Jonathan Turkey, The Week, 7/31/07. (Originally appeared in the Washington Post.)

T8 "Evidence, Ideology, and Politics in the Making of American Criminal Justice Policy," Michael Tonry, 42 Crime & Justice 1 (2013).

T9 "2019 NY Senate Bill No. 1716, 242nd Legislative Session, NY Committee Report," Jamaal Bailey [new criminal discovery reform] (and 2019-2020 NYS Budget).


U1 "Training to Be Psychotic," Ch. 4, The Real World of Child Interrogations, Ralph Underwager and Hollida Wakefield, Charles C. Thomas, 1990.

U2 U.S. v. Shaygan, 661 F.Supp.2d 1289 (S.D. Fla. 2009).

U3 U.S. v. Lawrence, 477 F.Supp.2d 864 (S.D. Ohio 2006).

U4 U.S. v. Rouse, 100 F.3d 560 (C.A. 8 (S.D.) 1996).


U6 U.S. v. Hernandez, 183 F.Supp.2d 468 (D. P.R. 2002).

U7 U.S. v. Lake, 53 F.Supp.2d 771 (D. NJ 1999).

U8 U.S. v. Frechette, 583 F.3d 374 (6th Cir. 2009).

U9 U.S. v. Curtin, 443 F.3d 1084 (2nd Cir. (NY) 2006).

U.S. v. Martin, 262 Fed.Appx. 392 (3rd Cir. 2008).

U11 U.S. v. Rodriguez-Pacheco, 475 F.3d 434 (1st Cir. (PR) 2007).

U13 "On Misjudging and Its Implications for Criminal Defendants, Their Lawyers and the Criminal Justice System," Rodney H. Uphoff, 7 Nevada Law Journal 521 (Spring 2007).

U14 "Antisexuality and Child Sexual Abuse," Ralph Underwager and Hollida Wakefield, Institute for Psychological Therapies (IPT), Northfield, MN; paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex, 1991.

U15 U.S. v. Cunningham, 680 F.Supp.2d 844 (N.D. Ohio 2010).

U16 "Convicting the Innocent: Aberration or Systemic Problem?," Rodney Uphoff, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 739 (2006).


V1 Surviving Justice: America's Wrongfully Convicted and Exonerated, Laura Vollen & Dave Eggers (eds.), Verso, 2008.


W1 The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confession, and the Norfolk Four, Tom Wells and Richard A. Leo, New Press, 1998.

W2 Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

W3 "Guidelines on Investigatory Interviewing of Children: What Is the Consensus in the Scientific Community," Hollida Wakefield, 24 American Journal of Forensic Psychology 3 (2006).

W4 "Sex Offender Treatment," Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager, 3 IPT (Institute for Psychological Therapies) Journal 1: 2 (Internet accessed 9/2/01: (1991).

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W11 Waterman v. Verniero, 12 F.Supp.2d 378 (D. NJ 1998).

W12 Washington v. Schriver, 240 F.3d 101 (2nd Cir. 2001).

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W29 "Internet Sex Stings," Richard Wright, Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions, Richard Wright (ed.), Springer, 2009.

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W34 "The Expansion of Criminal Registries and the Illusion of Control," Molly J. Walker Wilson, 73 Louisiana Law Review 509 (Winter 2013).

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Z1 "Will the Real Saddam Hussein Please Step Down," Tom Zeller, The New York Times [date unknown -- late 2002 or early 2003?].

Z2 "Punishment, Redemption, Mercy and Clemency," Steven Zeidman, New York Law Journal, 2/6/16.

Z3 "Officials' Estimates of the Incidence of 'Actual Innocence' Convictions," Marvin Zalman, Brad Smith, and Angie Kiger, 25 Justice Quarterly 1: 78 (March 2008).

Z4 "Disorder in the Courtroom? Child Witnesses Under Cross-Examination," Rachel Zajac, Sarah O'Neill, and Charlene Hayne, 32 Developmental Review 181 (2012).

Z5 "Residential Proximity to Schools and Daycares: An Empirical Analysis of Sex Offense Recidivism," Paul A. Zandbergen, Jill S. Levenson, and Timothy C. Hart, 37 Criminal Justice Behavior 5: 482 (May 2010).

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